Diğer Kaynaklar


Past Perfect Tense konu anlatımı

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PAST PERFECT TENSE

USAGE (Kullanım)

1. Geçmişteki bir olay veya andan daha önce gerçekleşmiş veya o anda bitmiş olaylar için kullanılır. Yalnız başına kullanılmaz. Ya Past bir cümleyle bağlıdır veya zaten past olan bağlamda bir geriye dönüş yaşanmıştır.

  • By the time I returned home he had already left.
  • When/After he (had) completed his project, he took his annual leave.
  • Before the police arrived, the thieves had already gone away.
  • She had been married for 7 years when her son was born
  • I came to the city when I was young. I hadn’t had any business experience but I became rich in 5 years.

 

Not:

no sooner … than 

no sooner + past perfect + than +simple past

  • She had no sooner finished cooking than her friend came in. [normal:regular]
  • No sooner had she finished cooking than her friend came in. [devrik: inverted]

hardly/scarcely … when/before 

no sooner + past perfect + when/before +simple past

  • Jim had hardly/scarcely reached London when he was called back. [normal:regular]
  • Hardly had Jim reached London when he was called back. [devrik: inverted]

§         Hardly had a moment passed before the door creaked open.

2. Geçmişte UNREAL durumlar: Yapının past perfect ancak anlamın past’ı kastettiği kullanımlar

a) wish clause

  • It’s a pity you were absent from the meeting yesterday. I wish you had been present.

b) if only= I wish

  • If only he had studied his lessons instead of wasting of time.

c) would rather, would sooner, would just as soon[1]

  • My friend took me to the student opera. I’d rather he had taken me to the theater instead.

d) If clause

  • If he had studied hard last year, he could have passed all his exams.

e) as if, as though

  • She acts as if nothing had happened yesterday.[2]

 

3. Reported speech durumunda hem pastın hem de present perfectin geçmişi olarak kullanılır.

  • “I have read five books so far.”             “She said she had read five books until that time.”
  • “I read five books in 2002.”                  “She said she had read five books in 2002.”

 




[1] Would genellikle ’d olarak kısaltılır. Had yardımcı fiili ile karıştırılmamalı.

[2] Görüldüğü gibi bir anda present tense ile past perfect yan yana gelmiş oldular.